Governance Documents

[toggle Title=”Articles of Association”]

Articles of Association – define the objectives and structure of the APAO, liability and indemnification, conflict of interests and others.

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[toggle Title=”Bylaws”]

Bylaws – contain provisions about officers of the APAO and their duties, standing committees, organization and meetings of the Council, membership and subscriptions, named awards and the annual congress.

BYLAW 1: THE PRESIDENT

1.1  The President of the Academy shall be elected by Council by a vote of simple majority. The President’s term of office shall be two years from the conclusion of one Congress to the conclusion of the next Congress.
1.2  The President shall take the Chair at all General Meetings of the Academy and all meetings of the Council.
1.3  The President shall have the right to call for meetings of the Council.
1.4  The President shall have a casting vote if necessary in addition to his vote as a member of the Council.

BYLAW 2: THE VICE-PRESIDENTS

2.1 The two Vice-Presidents shall be elected by the Council. They shall hold office for a term of two years, and shall be eligible for re-election for a term of another two years.
2.2 All duties, powers and responsibilities of the President shall, in his absence, devolve upon the most senior (in terms of duration of membership of the Council) of the Vice-Presidents. If necessary, the Council shall appoint any member of the Council to act for the President in his absence.

BYLAW 3: THE SECRETARY-GENERAL

3.1  The Secretary-General shall be elected by the Council, and he shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Academy. His term of office shall be for four years from the conclusion of one Congress to the conclusion of the congress four years later. He shall be eligible for re-election for two more terms but shall not hold office for more than three consecutive terms.
3.2  He shall be responsible for all correspondence of the Academy.
3.3  He shall take action on all decisions of the General Assembly and the Council.
3.4  He shall call for meetings of the Council and the General Assembly.
3.5  He shall make a summary record of all General Meetings and Council meetings, which shall be approved by the President, then circulated to all members within four months of the meeting.
3.6  He shall present a report on the activities of the Academy to Council and to the General Assembly.
3.7  He shall be the custodian of the minute books and other records of the Academy.
3.8  He shall be entitled to recommend the appointment of the Deputy Secretary-General to the Council, approval for which would normally be deemed to be automatic.
3.9 The Deputy Secretary-General shall take on any duty of the Secretary-General as the Secretary-General decides appropriate.

BYLAW 4: THE TREASURER

4.1  The Treasurer of the Academy shall be elected by the Council and he shall be the custodian of the funds and accounts of the Academy, and shall be accountable to the Council and the General Assembly. His term of office shall be for two years from the conclusion of one Congress to  the conclusion of the second Congress following. He shall be eligible for re-election for one more term.
4.2  He shall be responsible for collecting the subscription fees of members and other income of the Academy, and shall issue receipts promptly.
4.3  He shall pay all out goings of the Academy as approved by the Council.
4.4  He shall present a Statement of Accounts of the Academy to the Council and the General Assembly.
4.5  He shall prepare and present to the Council and the General Assembly a budget for the next two years.
4.6 All cheques of the Academy shall be signed by the Treasurer or his/her designated representative and one of the following: the President, one of the Vice-Presidents, the Secretary-General or the Deputy Secretary-General.

BYLAW 5: REGIONAL SECRETARY

5.1    There shall be one Regional Secretary for each member organisation of the Academy.
5.2  The Regional Secretary of a member organisation shall be nominated by the member organisation, and elected by the Council to serve on the Council for four years and shall be eligible for re-election provided his/her parent organisation has agreed.
5.3  The Regional Secretary shall be responsible for disseminating information from the Academy to the Ophthalmologists and others in his Organisation.
5.4  He shall also be responsible for gathering information from his country or region for the Academy.
5.5  He shall be responsible for collecting subscription fees from his/her parent organization to the Academy.

BYLAW 6: SUBSPECIALTY SOCIETY REPRESENTATIVE

6.1  Each subspecialty member society shall be eligible to appoint a representative to join the Council.
6.2  The Representative of a subspecialty member society shall be nominated by the member organisation, and elected by the Council to serve on the Council for four years and shall be eligible for re-election provided his/her parent organisation has agreed.
6.3  The Subspecialty Society Representative shall be responsible for disseminating information from the Academy to the Ophthalmologists and others in his Organisation.
6.4  He shall also be responsible for gathering information from his subspecialty and society for the Academy.
6.5  He shall be responsible for collecting subscription fees from his/her parent organization to the Academy.

BYLAW 7: STANDING COMMITTEE CHAIRS

7.1  There shall be one Chair for each of the Standing Committees.
7.2  The Standing Committee Chair shall be recommended with reference to his/her expertise, ability, capability, reputation and stature, as well as willingness and eagerness to take up the responsibility.
7.3  Priority shall be given to individuals who are current leaders or potential future leaders in ophthalmology in the Asia-Pacific region.
7.4  Council Members shall be given priority whenever possible.

BYLAW 8: ELECTION OF MAIN OFFICE BEARERS

(1)  President
(2)  Two Vice-Presidents
(3)  Secretary-General
(4)  President-Elect
(5)  Treasurer

8.1  Not less than eight weeks before the next Council meeting the Secretary-General shall call for nominations from all Council members for the above posts when election for any of them is due.
8.2  Nominations should close not less than four weeks before the next Council meeting.
8.3  The names of valid candidates shall be circulated to all Council members not less than two weeks before the next Council meeting.
8.4  Voting shall be by secret ballot at the Council meeting.
8.5  Only Council members in good standing shall be eligible to vote.

BYLAW 9: APPOINTMENT OF STANDING COMMITTEE CHAIRS & COUNCILORS-AT-LARGE

9.1  Both Standing Committee Chairs and Councilors-at-Large are proposed by the President, the Secretary-General and the President-Elect of the Academy in consultation with the Executive Committee.
9.2  The Executive Committee will recommend Standing Committee Chairs and Councilors-at-Large for Council endorsement.
9.3  Whenever possible, the appointment of Councilors-at-Large and Standing Committee Chairs shall involve as many member nations as possible.

BYLAW 10: COUNCIL MEETING

10.1  The Council shall meet at least once in two years at the time and venue of the Congress.
10.2  The President and the Secretary-General are empowered to call for a Council meeting at any time if they deem it necessary in extraordinary circumstances.
10.3  The Secretary-General shall give notice of the date, time, venue and agenda of the Council meeting in writing by post, facsimile or e-mail at least fourteen days before the meeting.

BYLAW 11: SUBSCRIPTIONS

11.1  Each member organisation of the Academy shall pay an annual subscription of a minimum of US$100.00.
11.2  A National Society or Organisation of the region, desiring to become a member of the Academy shall pay an entrance fee of US$100.00 on Council’s approval of their application to become a member.
11.3  Any member country whose subscriptions fall into arrears for four years shall be suspended from membership of the Academy.
11.4  The Council shall restore membership of a member country when all such dues to the Academy are settled in full.

BYLAW 12: INSTITUTIONAL ASSOCIATE MEMBERSHIP

12.1  The Council, on the recommendation of the Membership Committee, shall have full discretion on the admission of any institution that does not fulfill the criteria for full membership but has potential to facilitate the Academy to accomplish its mission and vision, to associate membership.

12.2  After the Council has approved an application for associate membership, the applicant shall pay an entrance fee equivalent to half the amount required of a full member or such other sum as the Council shall resolve from time to time. Each Institutional Associate Member shall pay a subscription fee in such amount as the Council resolve from time to time.

12.3  The Council may by a resolution terminate the membership of an Institutional Associate Member who fails to pay the subscription fee for two consecutive years. Subject to the Council’s approval, membership may be reinstated upon payment of the subscription fee in arrears.

12.4  An Institutional Associate Member shall be entitled to participate in only such programs of the Academy as the Council shall from time to time decide and be entitled to attend the annual general meeting, but in any event shall not be entitled to vote at any general meetings.

BYLAW 13: CONGRESSES

13.1  The Academy shall hold a Congress every year.
13.2  The Council shall decide on the location of the Congress at least three years before the due date.
13.3  The member organisation of the chosen location for a Congress shall be entrusted with the organization of the Congress including the dates of the Congress with the guidance of the Congress Standing Committee and the Council, in particular the Secretary- General.
13.4  The member organisation hosting the Congress shall elect the Congress President with approval of the Council.
13.5  The organisers shall be guided by the Council on the regulations and protocols regarding the conduct of the Congress, including the program of the Opening Ceremony and the rates of the registration fees.
13.6  At the conclusion of the closing of accounts of each Congress, the organising member shall pay the Academy 25% of the profits (50% starting from 2015) derived from conducting the Congress. The percentage of profits payable is subject to mutual agreement. The organisers of a Congress shall present to Council a financial statement after the Congress.

BYLAW 14: APAO SPECIAL LECTURES

14.1 There shall be named special lectures at each Congress of the Academy. The Council is empowered to inaugurate new lectures of such kind to honour exceptionally outstanding contributors to Ophthalmology in the Asia-Pacific region.
14.2 The existing named special lectures are the De Ocampo Lecture, the Holmes Lecture, and the Susruta Lecture.
14.3 The Council shall appoint a subcommittee of five to ten members to vet nominations from members of the Council and a delegate from each Member Society for these lectures and to recommend to the Council their choice.
14.4 Office bearers and Members of the Awards Standing Committee cannot be nominated for APAO Special Lectures.
14.5 Recipients of any APAO named awards (including Special Lectures) in one year cannot be nominated for APAO named awards in the subsequent two years to increase the chances of qualified candidates who have not been awarded before.
14.6 The De Ocampo Lecture is the highest award for excellent academic achievements. Speakers should be Ophthalmologists from the Asia-Pacific region and have an outstanding clinical or basic research background. It honours Dr Geminiano De Ocampo, the founding President of the APAO. It is presented in an even year when the APAO Annual Congress is held.
14.7 The Holmes Lecture is the highest award for exceptional contributions in preventive Ophthalmology, especially in the prevention of blindness in the Asia-Pacific region. It honours Dr William John Holmes, the founding Secretary-General of the APAO. It is presented in an odd year when the APAO Annual Congress is held.
14.8 The Susruta Lecture recognises contributions to cataract surgery, whatever the aspect. Priority is given to Ophthalmologists who have contributed to the control of mass cataract blindness, which is a perennial problem in the Asia-Pacific region. It honours Susruta, an ancient physician in the Indian subcontinent. It is presented in an even year when the APAO Annual Congress is held.
14.9 Each awardee is entitled to bring ONE accompanying person who will receive free registration for the
APAO congress (excluding that held in conjunction with the World Ophthalmology Congress) as well as an invitation to the Gala Dinner.
14.10 Attendance to the Award Presentation Ceremony and the delivery of the special lecture are required in order to receive the award.
14.11 Nominees cannot be nominated for more than one medal, named awards or special lectures. In the case of multiple nominations, the nominee will have to choose which medal, named award or special lecture s/he would like to run for.
14.12 Only one proposer is allowed for each nominee. In the case of having more than one proposer for a single award, the nominee will be responsible to choose one proposer for his/her nomination.
14.13 The Council is empowered to accept donations for an endowment fund to inaugurate new named special lectures.

BYLAW 15: APAO MEDALS, NAMED AWARDS & AWARDS

15.1 The Council shall appoint a subcommittee of five to ten members to recommend nominees from nominations made by members of the Council and a delegate from each Member Society for the various APAO medals, named awards and awards.

15.2 Recipients of any APAO named awards in one year cannot be nominated for APAO named awards in the subsequent two years to increase the chances of qualified candidates who have not been awarded before.

15.3 Office bearers and Members of the Awards Standing Committee cannot be nominated for medals, named awards and awards.

15.4  THE JOSE RIZAL MEDAL

The APAO awards its most prestigious medal, the Jose Rizal Medal, to outstanding Ophthalmologists for their excellence in Ophthalmology within the Asia-Pacific region. It is presented in an odd year when the APAO Annual Congress is held. As this medal measures outstanding contributions, it is not awarded if there is no suitable candidate for the year. It honours Dr Jose Rizal, an Ophthalmologist who became a national hero in the Philippines.

Attendance to the Award Presentation Ceremony is required in order to receive the medal.

15.5  THE JOSE RIZAL INTERNATIONAL MEDAL

The APAO awards the Jose Rizal International Medal, an equally prestigious medal, to outstanding personalities from outside the Asia- Pacific region who have made exceptionally valuable contributions to Ophthalmology in the Asia-Pacific area. It is presented in an even year when the APAO Annual Congress is held. It may not be awarded if there is no suitable candidate for the year.

Attendance to the Award Presentation Ceremony is required in order to receive the medal.

15.6  NAKAJIMA AWARD

Aimed at encouraging young ophthalmologists to play a more active role in ophthalmological development, the Nakajima Award honors young individuals for their outstanding international work in ophthalmology. The candidate should preferably be 40 years or below and has been actively involved in international activities that assist in the development of ophthalmology, particularly in relation to prevention of blindness, ophthalmic service and research pertinent to major blinding conditions such as cataract, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, corneal grafting, keratomalacia, trachoma and corneal ulcer. It honors Dr Akira Nakajima, APAO’s President from 1972 – 1976. The award is presented in an odd year when the APAO Annual Congress is held.

Attendance to the Award Presentation Ceremony is required in order to receive the award.

15.7  ARTHUR LIM AWARD

The Arthur Lim Award recognizes ophthalmologists who have demonstrated exemplary leadership in the field of ophthalmology and subsequently made substantial improvements in ophthalmic teaching and training in their countries and beyond. It is named after Prof Arthur Lim, former President and Secretary-General of the APAO. The award is presented in an even year when the APAO Annual Congress is held.

Attendance to the Award Presentation Ceremony is required in order to receive the award.

15.8 ICO MARK TSO GOLDEN APPLE AWARD 

Initiated by the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) and as a token of the ICO commitment to improving ophthalmic education worldwide, the ICO Mark Tso Golden Apple Award honors the most dedicated teacher of clinical ophthalmology in the Asia-Pacific region. It is named after Prof Mark O.M. Tso, immediate past ICO Director of Education. The award is presented in an odd year when the APAO Annual Congress is held (in the years where there is no World Ophthalmology Congress as per ICO Awards Regulations June 16 2015)

Attendance to the Award Presentation Ceremony is required in order to receive the award.

15.9  THE APAO DISTINGUSIHED SERVICE AWARDS

These are awarded to ophthalmologists of member organisations who have given distinguished service to Ophthalmology in their home territories. A maximum of one nominee per country/territory from each member organisation can be awarded at each
APAO congress. Council Members, together with Member Organisations, may nominate up to a maximum of two names for consideration by the subcommittee. The subcommittee shall recommend to the Council  one name from each country/territory.

Attendance to the Award Presentation Ceremony is required in order to receive the award. If the awardee’s physical presence is prevented by health issues or the inability to obtain a visa, the award will be dispatched to the awardee by post.

15.10 THE OUTSTANDING SERVICE IN PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS AWARDS

These awards are given to an individual or an organization that has made outstanding contributions to prevention of blindness in the Asia-Pacific region. The individual need not be an Ophthalmologist. Council Members, together with Member Organizations, may nominate up to a maximum of two names for consideration by the subcommittee. The subcommittee shall recommend to the Council one name from each country.

Attendance to the Award Presentation Ceremony is required in order to receive the award. If the awardee’s physical presence is prevented by health issues or the inability to obtain a visa, the award will be dispatched to the awardee by post.

15.11 Nominees cannot be nominated for both the APAO Distinguished Service Awards and the APAO Outstanding Service in Prevention of Blindness Awards. In the case of multiple nominations, the nominee will have to choose which award s/he would like to run for.

15.12 Only one proposer is allowed for each nominee. In the case of having more than one proposer for a single award, the nominee will be responsible to choose one proposer for his/her nomination.

15.13  INAUGURATION OF NEW AWARDS

The Council is empowered to inaugurate new awards as it deems necessary and as agreed to by the majority of Council members

15.14 PATRONS AND FRIENDS OF THE ACADEMY

Council may appoint individuals, Institutions or Organisations that have made significant contributions to the Academy, either in cash or kind, as Patrons or Friends of the Academy.

BYLAW 16: APAO YASUO TANO TRAVEL GRANTS

16.1  The APAO Yasuo Tano Travel Grants were established with the aim to provide young and upcoming ophthalmologists with financial support to attend the APAO annual congress.
16.2  Travel Grant Recipients are obliged to commit scientifically to the APAO annual congress and can only pick up the grants when they have completed their scientific presentation(s).

BYLAW 17: ADVISORY STANDING COMMITTEE

17.1  The Council shall appoint an Advisory Standing Committee and its Chairman. The functions of the Advisory Standing Committee shall be to advise the Council on issues pertaining to the Academy and also issues specifically referred to it by the Council. The Chairman of the Committee shall be an ex-officio member of the Council.

BYLAW 18: SUBSPECIALTY MEMBERHIP SELECTION CRITERIA

18.1  The applicant must be a subspecialty group representative of the Asia-Pacific region.
18.2  Only major subspecialty groups will be considered.
18.3 The applicant must be a society recognized as of good standing with the following documentations:

18.3.1   A proper registration
18.3.2  Constitution and/or Memorandum and Articles listing out clearly its objectives, vision and mission

18.4  The applicant must have a full Council consisting of the following:

18.4.1  At least 5 members
18.4.2  Representatives of at least 5 member nations and/or territories of the APAO

18.5 The applicant should have a proper process to elect and/or appoint Council Members/Office Bearers.

BYLAW 19: AMENDMENTS TO THE BYLAWS

19.1  The bylaws may be amended by the Council from time to time as it deems necessary. An attendance of a two thirds majority of the members to vote is required. Amendments passed by the Council shall be approved by the General Assembly.

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